Narrative Text

Narrative Text

Penjelasan lengkap apa itu narrative text mulai dari pengertian, struktur, ciri-ciri, definisi, materi, fungsi, materi, dan contoh kalimat. Masih semangat belajar bahasa Inggris? Jika ya, artinya kamu berada di artikel yang tepat. Artikel kali ini akan membahas tentang salah satu bentuk penulisan dalam bahasa Inggris, yaitu narrative text. Wah, apa itu narrative text? Yuk kita bahas bersama.

Pengertian narrative text adalah sebagai bentuk teks yang menggambarkan suatu cerita yang umumnya bersifat fiksi atau khayalan. Tujuan dari penulisan teks jenis ini biasanya sebatas sebagai hiburan bagi pembacanya semata. Lalu ciri-ciri narrative text yaitu penulis tidak mengalami secara langsung peristiwa yang ditulisnya, melainkan urutan cerita atau kronologis tersebut merupakan bentuk imajinasi dari si penulis yang dituangkan ke dalam tulisan.

Karena bertujuan memberikan hiburan dan menarik minta orang untuk membaca, jenis tulisan ini selalu memiliki plot atau alur cerita, dengan mengangkat suatu masalah yang menimbulkan adanya konflik hingga di akhiri oleh penyelesaian masalah tersebut. Penyelesaian masalah tersebut dapat berupa akhir cerita yang bahagia, namun dapat pula akhir yang sedih.

Struktur Narrative Text

Penulisan narrative text secara teori memiliki serangkaian tahapan untuk menghasilkan cerita yang memiliki alur dan menarik minat pembaca. Penyusunan narrative text memiliki empat tahapan berikut :

1. Orientation

Terletak di bagian awal cerita, Orientation ini biasanya memberikan wawasan kepada pembaca mengenai karakter dan setting dari cerita tersebut. Oleh karena itu, bagian Orientation umumnya mempergunakan metode 5W : What (Apa), Who (Siapa), Where (Dimana), When (Kapan), Why (Mengapa). Pada dasarnya, cerita pada narrative text sudah dapat dibentuk dengan menggunakan metode What dan Who.

2. Complication

Setelah memperkenalkan karakter dan setting cerita pada narrative text yang dibuat, langkah selanjutnya adalah menuliskan awal permasalahan yang memicu munculnya konflik dalam cerita. Bagian Complication inilah yang paling ditunggu-tunggu oleh para pembaca karena merupakan bagian yang paling menarik dari narrative text itu sendiri.

Terkadang, untuk membuat alur cerita yang membuat pembaca tertarik, penulis membuat lebih dari satu masalah dalam cerita yang mereka buat. Bentuk masalah yang diceritakan dalam narrative text terbagi dalam beberapa jenis, yaitu :

  • Konflik Natural

Permasalahan yang muncul dikarenakan karakter dalam cerita berhadapan dengan kekuatan alam.

  • Konflik Sosial

Permasalahan yang muncul antar karakter dalam cerita, biasanya karena adanya perbedaan kepentingan.

  • Konflik Psikologis

Permasalahan yang muncul ketika karakter dalam cerita berhadapan dengan dirinya sendiri, biasanya berupa pertentangan nilai baik buruk suatu perbuatan.

3. Resolution

Bagian selanjutnya setelah pembaca dibuat penasaran dengan masalah dan konflik yang muncul dalam cerita, adalah bagaimana permasalahan dan konflik tersebut berakhir. Pada bagian Resolution lah terletak akhir dari cerita tersebut. Jika kamu adalah peminat cerita fiksi, tentu kamu tahu bahwa bagian akhir cerita dapat berupa akhir yang bahagia atau bahkan akhir yang sedih. Semua itu tergantung bagaimana penulis memainkan alur cerita supaya menarik minat pembaca.

4. Re-Orientation

Dalam narrative text, cerita yang dibuat oleh penulis umumnya ditutup oleh nilai moril atau pelajaran yang dapat diambil pembaca melalui kisah tersebut. Itulah sebabnya jenis narrative text ini biasa diceritakan kepada anak-anak, karena di akhir cerita biasanya terdapat nilai moril yang sekaligus menjadi pengajaran nilai baik dan buruk bagi mereka.

Baca juga: Descriptive Text

Jenis Narrative Text

Bentuk narrative text dapat berupa imajinasi dan juga faktual. Jenis-jenis tulisan yang termasuk dalam narrative text adalah sebagai berikut :

Personal Experience

History

Fable

Fairy Tale

Mystery

Science Fiction

Legend

Horror

Romance

dan lain sebagainya

Contoh Narrative Text

Agar kamu lebih paham dengan fungsi narrative text, bacalah cerita berikut dengan seksama dan setelah itu perhatikan struktur penyusun teks berikut.

The Ugly Duckling

Once upon a time down on an old farm, lived a duck family, and Mother Duck had been sitting on a clutch of new eggs. One nice morning, the eggs hatched and out popped six chirpy ducklings. But one egg was bigger than the rest, and it didn’t hatch. Mother Duck couldn’t recall laying that seventh egg. How did it get there? TOCK! TOCK! The little prisoner was pecking inside his shell.

“Did I count the eggs wrongly?” Mother Duck wondered. But before she had time to think about it, the last egg finally hatched. A strange looking duckling with gray feathers that should have been yellow gazed at a worried mother. The ducklings grew quickly, but Mother Duck had a secret worry.

“I can’t understand how this ugly duckling can be one of mine!” she said to herself, shaking her head as she looked at her last born. Well, the gray duckling certainly wasn’t pretty, and since he ate far more than his brothers, he was outgrowing them. As the days went by, the poor ugly duckling became more and more unhappy. His brothers didn’t want to play with him, he was so clumsy, and all the farmyard folks simply laughed at him. He felt sad and lonely, while Mother Duck did her best to console him.

“Poor little ugly duckling!” she would say. “Why are you so different from the others?” And the ugly duckling felt worse than ever. He secretly wept at night. He felt nobody wanted him.

“Nobody loves me, they all tease me! Why am I different from my brothers?”

Then one day, at sunrise, he ran away from the farmyard. He stopped at a pond and began to question all the other birds. “Do you know of any ducklings with gray feathers like mine?” But everyone shook their heads in scorn.

“We don’t know anyone as ugly as you.” The ugly duckling did not lose heart, however, and kept on making inquiries. He went to another pond, where a pair of large geese gave him the same answer to his question. What’s more, they warned him: “Don’t stay here! Go away! It’s dangerous. There are men with guns around here!” The duckling was sorry he had ever left the farmyard.

Then one day, his travels took him near an old countrywoman’s cottage. Thinking he was a stray goose, she caught him.

“I’ll put this in a hutch. I hope it’s a female and lays plenty of eggs!” said the old woman, whose eyesight was poor. But the ugly duckling laid not a single egg. The hen kept frightening him.

“Just wait! If you don’t lay eggs, the old woman will wring your neck and pop you into the pot!” And the cat chipped in: “Hee! Hee! I hope the woman cooks you, then I can gnaw at your bones!” The poor ugly duckling was so scared that he lost his appetite, though the old woman kept stuffing him with food and grumbling: “If you won’t lay eggs, at least hurry up and get plump!”

“Oh, dear me!” moaned the now terrified duckling. “I’ll die of fright first! And I did so hope someone would love me!”

Then one night, finding the hutch door ajar, he escaped. Once again he was all alone. He fled as far away as he could, and at dawn, he found himself in a thick bed of reeds. “If nobody wants me, I’ll hid here forever.” There was plenty a food, and the duckling began to feel a little happier, though he was lonely. One day at sunrise, he saw a flight of beautiful birds wing overhead. White, with long slender necks, yellow beaks and large wings, they were migrating south.

“If only I could look like them, just for a day!” said the duckling, admiringly. Winter came and the water in the reed bed froze. The poor duckling left home to seek food in the snow. He dropped exhausted to the ground, but a farmer found him and put him in his big jacket pocket.

“I’ll take him home to my children. They’ll look after him. Poor thing, he’s frozen!” The duckling was showered with kindly care at the farmer’s house. In this way, the ugly duckling was able to survive the bitterly cold winter.

However, by springtime, he had grown so big that the farmer decided: “I’ll set him free by the pond!” That was when the duckling saw himself mirrored in the water.

“Goodness! How I’ve changed! I hardly recognize myself!” The flight of swans winged north again and glided on to the pond. When the duckling saw them, he realized he was one of their kind, and soon made friends.

“We’re swans like you!” they said, warmly. “Where have you been hiding?”

“It’s a long story,” replied the young swan, still astounded. Now, he swam majestically with his fellow swans. One day, he heard children on the river bank exclaim: “Look at that young swan! He’s the finest of them all!”

And he almost burst with happiness.

Struktur Narrative Text The Ugly Duckling

OrientationOnce upon a time down on an old farm, lived a duck family, and Mother Duck had been sitting on a clutch of new eggs. One nice morning, the eggs hatched and out popped six chirpy ducklings.
Complication 1But one egg was bigger than the rest, and it didn’t hatch. Mother Duck couldn’t recall laying that seventh egg. How did it get there? TOCK! TOCK! The little prisoner was pecking inside his shell.
Complication 2Well, the gray duckling certainly wasn’t pretty, and since he ate far more than his brothers, he was outgrowing them. As the days went by, the poor ugly duckling became more and more unhappy. His brothers didn’t want to play with him, he was so clumsy, and all the farmyard folks simply laughed at him. He felt sad and lonely, while Mother Duck did her best to console him.
ResolutionThe duck saved by a farmer and then turned into a beautiful swan. He almost burst into happiness.
Re-OrientationNever underestimate someone physically

Jadi bagaimana, apa kamu sudah lebih paham dengan definisi materi narrative text? Semoga setelah ini kamu bisa mulai menulis narrative text kamu sendiri ya! Sampai berjumpa lagi!

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